A Wild Hare|
July 27, 1940
Ben Hardaway, Cal Dalton (predecessor)|
Tex Avery (official)
Mel Blanc (1940–1989)|
|Significant other(s)||Lola Bunny, Honey Bunny|
Bugs Bunny is a funny animal cartoon character, best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of theatrical Short films produced by Warner Bros. during the Golden age of American animation. His popularity during this era led to his becoming a cultural icon, as well as a corporate mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment.
Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray hare or rabbit who is famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, a pronounced New York accent, his portrayal as a trickster, and his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" (usually said while chewing a carrot). He was created by the staff of Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons): including Tex Avery, who directed Bugs' early definitive film A Wild Hare (1940); Robert McKimson, who created Bugs' definitive character design; and Mel Blanc, who originated the voice of Bugs.
- Main article: Development of Bugs Bunny
thumb|left|550px|A depiction of Bugs' evolution throughout the years A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking very different, first appears in Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by Ben "Bugs" Hardaway and an uncredited Cal Dalton (who was responsible for the initial design of the rabbit). This cartoon has an almost identical plot to Tex Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt (1937), which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey who is more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit. The rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would later use for Woody Woodpecker. Hare Hunt also gives its rabbit the famous Groucho Marx line, "Of course you realize, this means war!" The rabbit character was so popular with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again.
The rabbit returns in Prest-O Change-O (1939), directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house. The rabbit harasses them, but is ultimately bested by the bigger of the two dogs.
The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um (1939), directed again by Dalton and Hardaway. This cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is also notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name. He had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet that he drew for Hardaway. In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny (quotation marks only used, on and off, until 1944).
In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit." In the actual cartoons and publicity, however, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway."
In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera (1940) the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd. This time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs, taller and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is also different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though Arthur Q. Bryan's character voice is already established.
Bugs' official debut
[[wikipedia:Image:FirstBugs.jpg|250px|thumb|Bugs' first appearance in A Wild Hare (1940)|]] A Wild Hare, directed by Tex Avery and released on July 27, 1940, is widely considered to be the first official Bugs Bunny cartoon. It is the first film where both Elmer Fudd and Bugs are shown in their fully developed forms as hunter and tormentor, respectively; the first in which Mel Blanc uses what would become Bugs' standard voice; and the first in which Bugs uses his catchphrase, "What's up, Doc?" The film was a huge success in theaters and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Animated Short Film.
Immediately following on A Wild Hare, Bob Clampett's Patient Porky (1940) features a cameo appearance by Bugs, announcing to the audience that 750 rabbits have been born. The gag uses Bugs' Wild Hare visual design, but his goofier pre-Wild Hare voice characterization.
The second full-fledged role for the mature Bugs, Chuck Jones' Elmer's Pet Rabbit (1941), is the first to use Bugs' name on-screen: it appears in a title card, "featuring Bugs Bunny," at the start of the film (which was edited in following the success of A Wild Hare). However, Bugs' voice in this cartoon is noticeably different, and his design was slightly altered as well. After Pet Rabbit, however, subsequent Bugs appearances returned to normal: the Wild Hare visual design returned, and Blanc re-used the Wild Hare voice characterization.
Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt (1941), directed by Friz Freleng, became the second Bugs Bunny cartoon to receive an Academy Award nomination for Best Animated Short Film. The fact that it didn't win the award was later spoofed somewhat in What's Cookin' Doc? (1944), in which Bugs demands a recount (claiming to be a victim of "sa-bo-TAH-gee") after losing the Oscar to Jimmy Cagney and presents a clip from Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt to prove his point.
World War II
By 1942, Bugs had become the number one star of Merrie Melodies. The series had originally been intended only for one-shot characters in films after several early attempts to introduce characters (Foxy, Goopy Geer and Piggy) failed under Harman–Ising (in 1937, under Leon Schlesinger, Merrie Melodies started introducing newer characters). Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid (1942) shows a slight redesign of Bugs, with less-prominent front teeth and a rounder head. The character was reworked by Robert McKimson, then an animator in Clampett's unit. The redesign at first was only used in the films created by Clampett's unit, but in time it would be taken up by the other directors, with Freleng and Frank Tashlin the first. When McKimson was himself promoted to director, he created yet another version, with more slanted eyes, longer teeth and a much larger mouth. He used this version until 1949 (as did Art Davis for the one Bugs Bunny film he directed) when he started using the version he had designed for Clampett. Jones would come up with his own slight modification, and the voice had slight variations between the units. Bugs also made cameos in Avery's final Warner Bros. cartoon, Crazy Cruise.
Since Bugs' debut in A Wild Hare, he had appeared only in color Merrie Melodies films (making him one of the few recurring characters created for that series in the Schlesinger era prior to the full conversion to color), alongside Elmer predecessor Egghead, Inki, Sniffles, and Elmer himself. While Bugs made a cameo in Porky Pig's Feat (1943), this was his only appearance in a black-and-white Looney Tunes film. He did not star in a Looney Tunes film until that series made its complete conversion to only color cartoons beginning in 1944. Buckaroo Bugs was Bugs' first film in the Looney Tunes series, and was also the last Warner Bros. cartoon to credit Schlesinger (as he had retired and sold his studio to Warner Bros. that year).
Bugs' popularity soared during World War II because of his free and easy attitude, and he began receiving special star billing in his cartoons by 1943. By that time Warner Bros. had become the most profitable cartoon studio in the United States. In company with cartoon studios such as Disney and Famous Studios, Warners put its characters against Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and the Japanese. Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips (1944) features Bugs at odds with a group of Japanese soldiers. This cartoon has since been pulled from distribution due to its racial stereotypes of Japanese people. He also faces off against Hermann Göring and Hitler in Herr Meets Hare (1945), which introduced his well-known reference to Albuquerque as he mistakenly winds up in the Black Forest of 'Joimany' instead of Las Vegas, Nevada. Bugs also appeared in the 1942 two-minute U.S. war bonds commercial film Any Bonds Today, along with Porky and Elmer.
At the end of Super-Rabbit (1943), Bugs appears wearing a United States Marine Corps dress blue uniform. As a result, the Marine Corps made Bugs an honorary Marine Master Sergeant. From 1943 to 1946, Bugs was the official mascot of Kingman Army Airfield, Kingman, where thousands of aerial gunners were trained during World War II. Some notable trainees included Clark Gable and Charles Bronson. Bugs also served as the mascot for 530 Squadron of the 380th Bombardment Group, 5th Air Force, U.S. Air Force, which was attached to the Royal Australian Air Force and operated out of Australia's Northern Territory from 1943 to 1945, flying B-24 Liberator bombers. Bugs riding an air delivered torpedo served as the squadron logo for Marine Torpedo/Bomber Squadron 242 in the Second World War. [[wikipedia:File:Bugs-ending.jpg|right|thumb|Bugs (standing in for Porky Pig) in the closing to Hare Tonic (1945) and Baseball Bugs (1946)|]] In 1944, Bugs Bunny made a cameo appearance in Jasper Goes Hunting, a Puppetoons film produced by rival studio Paramount Pictures. In this cameo (animated by McKimson, with Blanc providing the usual voice), Bugs (after being threatened at gunpoint) pops out of a rabbit hole, saying his usual catchphrase; after hearing the orchestra play the wrong theme song, he realizes "Hey, I'm in the wrong picture!" and then goes back in the hole.
Although it was usually Porky Pig who brought the Looney Tunes films to a close with his stuttering, "That's all, folks!", Bugs replaced him at the end of Hare Tonic and Baseball Bugs, bursting through a drum just as Porky did, but munching on a carrot and saying in his Bronx-Brooklyn accent, "And that's the end!"
After World War II, Bugs continued to appear in numerous Warner Bros. cartoons, making his last "Golden Age" appearance in False Hare (1964). He starred in over 167 theatrical short films, most of which were directed by Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson and Chuck Jones. Freleng's Knighty Knight Bugs (1958), in which a medieval Bugs trades blows with Yosemite Sam and his fire-breathing dragon (which has a cold), won an Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film (becoming the first Bugs Bunny cartoon to win said award). Three of Jones' films — Rabbit Fire, Rabbit Seasoning, and Duck! Rabbit — compose what is often referred to as the "Rabbit Season/Duck Season" trilogy and are famous for originating the "historic" rivalry between Bugs and Daffy Duck. Jones' classic What's Opera (1957), casts Bugs and Elmer Fudd in a parody of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. It was deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 1992, becoming the first cartoon short to receive this honor.
In the fall of 1960, ABC debuted the prime-time television program The Bugs Bunny Show. This show packaged many of the post-1948 Warners cartoons with newly animated wraparounds. After two seasons, it was moved from its evening slot to reruns on Saturday mornings. The Bugs Bunny Show changed format and exact title frequently, but remained on network television for 40 years. The packaging was later completely different, with each cartoon simply presented on its own, title and all, though some clips from the new bridging material were sometimes used as filler.
Bugs did not appear in any of the post-1964 Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies films produced by DePatie-Freleng Enterprises or Seven Arts Productions, nor did he appear in the lone Looney Tunes TV special produced by Filmation. He would not appear in new material on-screen again until Bugs and Daffy's Carnival of the Animals aired in 1976.
From the late 1970s through the 1980s, Bugs was featured in various animated specials for network television, such as Bugs Bunny's Thanksgiving Diet, Bugs Bunny's Looney Christmas Tales and Bugs Bunny's Bustin' Out All Over. Bugs also starred in several compilation films during this time, including the independently-produced documentary Bugs Bunny: Superstar (1975), which featured the vintage cartoons then owned by United Artists; as well as Warner Bros.' own efforts The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie (1979), The Looney Looney Looney Bugs Bunny Movie (1981), Bugs Bunny's 3rd Movie: 1001 Rabbit Tales (1982) and Daffy Duck's Quackbusters (1988).
[[wikipedia:File:Mickey-mouse-bugs-bunny-113.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Bugs with his Disney counterpart Mickey Mouse in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988)|]] In the 1988 animated/live action movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Bugs appeared as one of the inhabitants of Toontown. However, since the film was being produced by Disney, Warner Bros. would only allow the use of their biggest star if he got an equal amount of screen time as Disney's biggest star, Mickey Mouse. Because of this, both characters are always together in frame when onscreen. Roger Rabbit was also one of the final productions in which Mel Blanc voiced Bugs (as well as the other Looney Tunes characters) before his death in 1989.
Bugs appeared in another animated production featuring numerous characters from rival studios; the 1990 drug prevention TV special Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue. This special is notable for being the first time that someone other than Blanc voiced Bugs and Daffy (both characters were voiced by Jeff Bergman for this). Bugs also made guest appearances in the early 1990s television series Tiny Toon Adventures, as the principal of Acme Looniversity and the mentor of Buster Bunny. He made further cameos in Warner Bros.' subsequent animated TV shows Taz-Mania, Animaniacs and Histeria!
Bugs returned to the silver screen in Box Office Bunny (1990). This was the first Bugs Bunny cartoon since 1964 to be released in theaters and it was created for Bugs' 50th anniversary celebration. It was followed by (Blooper) Bunny, a cartoon that was shelved from theaters, but later premiered on Cartoon Network in 1997 and has since gained a cult following among animation fans for its edgy humor.
In 1996, Bugs and the other Looney Tunes characters appeared in the live-action/animated film, Space Jam, directed by Joe Pytka and starring Michael Jordan. The film also introduced the character Lola Bunny, who becomes Bugs' new love interest. Space Jam received mixed reviews from critics, but was a box office success (grossing over $230 million worldwide). The success of Space Jam led to the development of another live-action/animated film, Looney Tunes: Back in Action, released in 2003 and directed by Joe Dante. Unlike Space Jam, Back in Action was a box-office bomb, though it did receive more positive reviews from critics.
In 1997, Bugs appeared on a U.S. postage stamp, the first cartoon to be so honored, beating the iconic Mickey Mouse. The stamp is number seven on the list of the ten most popular U.S. stamps, as calculated by the number of stamps purchased but not used. The introduction of Bugs onto a stamp was controversial at the time, as it was seen as a step toward the 'commercialization' of stamp art. The postal service rejected many designs, and went with a postal-themed drawing. Avery Dennison printed the Bugs Bunny stamp sheet, which featured "a special ten-stamp design and was the first self-adhesive souvenir sheet issued by the U.S. Postal Service."
A younger version of Bugs is the main character of Baby Looney Tunes, which debuted on Cartoon Network in 2002. In the action comedy Loonatics Unleashed, his definite descendant Ace Bunny is the leader of the Loonatics team and seems to have inherited his ancestor's Brooklyn accent and comic wit.[[wikipedia:File:Bugsbunny2011.png|150px|thumb|Bugs as he appears in The Looney Tunes Show|]] In 2011, Bugs Bunny and the rest of the Looney Tunes gang returned to television in the Cartoon Network sitcom, The Looney Tunes Show, with Jeff Bergman returning to voice both Bugs and Daffy Duck. The characters feature new designs by artist Jessica Borutski. Among the changes to Bugs' appearance were the simplification and enlargement of his feet, as well as a change to his fur from gray to a shade of mauve (though in the second season, his fur has been changed back to gray). In the series, Bugs and Daffy are portrayed as best friends as opposed to their usual pairing as rivals or frenemies. At the same time, Bugs is more openly annoyed at Daffy's antics in the series (sometimes to the point of aggression), compared to his usual carefree personality from the original cartoons. Bugs and Daffy are close friends with Porky Pig in the series, although Bugs tends to be a more reliable friend to Porky than Daffy is. Bugs also dates Lola Bunny in the show, although at first he finds her to be "crazy" and a bit too talkative (he later learns to accept her personality quirks, similar to his tolerance for Daffy). Unlike the original cartoons, Bugs lives in a regular home, which he shares with Daffy, Taz (whom he treats as a pet dog) and Speedy Gonzalez, in the middle of a cul-de-sac with their neighbors Yosemite Sam, Granny and Witch Lezah.
Bugs has also appeared in numerous video games, including the Bugs Bunny's Crazy Castle series, Bugs Bunny Birthday Blowout, Bugs Bunny: Rabbit Rampage, Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble, Looney Tunes B-Ball, Looney Tunes Racing, Looney Tunes: Space Race, Bugs Bunny Lost in Time, Bugs Bunny and Taz Time Busters, Loons: The Fight for Fame and Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal.
Return to film
On August 13, 2010, Warner Bros. Pictures announced that they were planning a live-action/CG-animated combo feature film based on the Looney Tunes character. Later, on September 19, 2012, it was announced that a new Looney Tunes reboot film is in development.
Personality and catchphrases
|“||Some people call me cocky and brash, but actually I am just self-assured. I'm nonchalant, imperturbable, contemplative. I play it cool, but I can get hot under the collar. And above all I'm a very 'aware' character. I'm well aware that I am appearing in an animated cartoon....And sometimes I chomp on my carrot for the same reason that a stand-up comic chomps on his cigar. It saves me from rushing from the last joke to the next one too fast. And I sometimes don't act, I react. And I always treat the contest with my pursuers as 'fun and games.' When momentarily I appear to be cornered or in dire danger and I scream, don't be consoined [sic] – it's actually a big put-on. Let's face it, Doc. I've read the script and I already know how it turns out.||”|
Bugs Bunny is characterized as being clever and capable of outsmarting anyone who antagonizes him, including Elmer Fudd, Yosemite Sam, Willoughby the Dog, Marvin the Martian, Beaky Buzzard, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tasmanian Devil, Cecil Turtle, Witch Hazel, Rocky and Mugsy, Wile E. Coyote, the Crusher, gremlin, Count Blood Count and a host of others. Bugs almost always wins these conflicts, a plot pattern which recurs in Looney Tunes films directed by Chuck Jones. Concerned that viewers would lose sympathy for an aggressive protagonist who always won, Jones arranged for Bugs to be bullied, cheated, or threatened by the antagonists while minding his own business, justifying his subsequent antics as retaliation or self-defense. He's also been known to break the Fourth wall by "communicating" with the audience, either by explaining the situation (e.g. "Be with you in a minute, folks!"), describing someone to the audience (e.g. "Feisty, ain't they?"), clueing in on the story (e.g. "That happens to him all during the picture, folks."), explaining that one of his antagonists' actions have pushed him to the breaking point ("Of course you know, this means war."), admitting his own deviousness toward his antagonists ("Gee, ain't I a stinker?"), etc.
Bugs will usually try to placate the antagonist and avoid conflict, but when an antagonist pushes him too far, Bugs may address the audience and invoke his catchphrase "Of course you realize this means war!" before he retaliates, and the retaliation will be devastating. This line was taken from Groucho Marx and others in the 1933 film Duck Soup and was also used in the 1935 Marx film A Night at the Opera. Bugs would pay homage to Groucho in other ways, such as occasionally adopting his stooped walk or leering eyebrow-raising (in Hair-Raising Hare, for example) or sometimes with a direct impersonation (as in Slick Hare). Other directors, such as Friz Freleng, characterized Bugs as altruistic. When Bugs meets other successful characters (such as Cecil Turtle in Tortoise Beats Hare, or the Gremlin in Falling Hare), his overconfidence becomes a disadvantage.
Bugs' nonchalant carrot-chewing standing position, as explained by Freleng, Jones and Bob Clampett, originated in a scene in the film It Happened One Night, in which Clark Gable's character leans against a fence, eating carrots rapidly and talking with his mouth full to Claudette Colbert's character. This scene was well known while the film was popular, and viewers at the time likely recognized Bugs Bunny's behavior as satire. Coincidentally, the film also features a minor character, Oscar Shapely, continually calling Gable's character "Doc", and Gable's character mentions an imaginary character named "Bugs Dooley" to frighten Shapely.
|“||"What's up Doc?" is a very simple thing. It's only funny because it's in a situation. It was an all Bugs Bunny line. It wasn't funny. If you put it in human terms; you come home late one night from work, you walk up to the gate in the yard, you walk through the gate and up into the front room, the door is partly open and there's some guy shooting under your living room. So what do you do? You run if you have any sense, the least you can do is call the cops. But what if you come up and tap him on the shoulder and look over and say "What's up Doc?" You're interested in what he's doing. That's ridiculous. That's not what you say at a time like that. So that's why it's funny, I think. In other words it's asking a perfectly legitimate question in a perfectly illogical situation.||”|
Several Chuck Jones films in the late 1940s and 1950s depict Bugs travelling via cross-country (and, in some cases, intercontinental) tunnel-digging, ending up in places as varied as Mexico (Bully for Bugs), the Himalayas (The Abominable Snow Rabbit) and Antarctica (Frigid Hare) all because he "shoulda taken that left toin at Albukoikee." He first utters that phrase in Herr Meets Hare (1945), when he emerges in the Black Forest, a cartoon seldom seen today due to its blatantly topical subject matter. When Hermann Göring says to Bugs, "There is no Las Vegas in 'Chermany'" and takes a potshot at Bugs, Bugs dives into his hole and says, "Joimany! Yipe!", as Bugs realizes he's behind enemy lines. The confused response to his "left toin" comment also followed a pattern. For example, when he tunnels into Scotland in My Bunny Lies over the Sea (1948), while thinking he's heading for the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, it provides another chance for an ethnic stereotype: "Therrre's no La Brrrea Tarrr Pits in Scotland!" (to which Bugs responds, "Uh...what's up, Mac-doc?"). A couple of late-1950s/early-1960s cartoons of this ilk also featured Daffy Duck travelling with Bugs ("Since when is Pismo Beach inside a cave?!").
In the 168 Bugs Bunny theatrical shorts released from 1940 to 1964, 37 of them of Bugs' feature him imitating the behavior, style of dress, and appearance of females. They all belong to a category of films featuring "temporary" transvestism. In such films, characters adopt the style of the opposite sex as part of a disguise. Gender boundaries are briefly crossed, but the films tend to end with "rigid sex roles" and heterosexuality restored. In Bugs' case, his disguise is eventually exposed and then the character "safely" returns to his previous masculine identity. For example, in Bedeviled Rabbit (1957) disguises himself as a woman to seduce the Tasmanian Devil. The disguise involves "a mop of blonde hair, a bear trap mouth with lipstick, dress, and hat". While Taz falls for this apparent female of his species, the short ends with his own "unfeminine" wife confronting him and violently punishing his unfaithfulness. Her appearance involving the hair bun, an obese figure, shabby clothes, and a rolling pin at hand. Bugs merely mocks the "nice lady".
Other Bugs shorts depict the Bunny as a heterosexual. He is married to a Mrs. Bugs Bunny in Hold the Lion (1942). He is romantically coupled with Mama Bear in Bugs Bunny and the Three Bears (1944), with mechanical rabbits in Hair-Raising Hare (1946) and with Daisy Lou in Hare Splitter (1948), as well as with Lola Bunny in the movie Space Jam (1996). He has various female rabbits as love interests in Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips (1944), A-Lad-In His Lamp (1948), Bewitched Bunny (1954), and Rabbit Romeo (1957). He also expresses desire for human women, such as Lauren Bacall and Carmen Miranda in Slick Hare (1947), and the swimsuit-wearing women in Bugs Bunny Rides Again (1948). He accidentally peeks at a woman through a window in Hurdy-Gurdy Hare (1950), and then decides to take another peek at her. In Hot Cross Bunny (1948), a hospitalized Bugs asks for a woman to tend to him. He has a stag film on his person in What's Cookin' Doc? (1944). In The Unruly Hare (1945), he agrees with the statement that "'woman needs man and man must have his mate'". However, as with most Looney Tunes films, this sub-series of cartoons rarely emphasize on gender differences, comments on gender, or the "sexual pursuit" between characters. Far more often, the emphasis is instead on the "endless chase" between hunter/predator and prey. The main exception is the sub-series of Pepé Le Pew shorts, where "heterosexual romance" is emphasized.
The following are the many voice actors who have voiced Bugs Bunny over the last seventy-three years: right|thumb|150px|Mel Blanc was the original voice of Bugs and would voice the character for nearly five decades
Mel Blanc voiced the character for almost 50 years, from Bugs' debut in the 1940 short A Wild Hare until Blanc's death in 1989. Blanc described the voice as a combination of Bronx and Brooklyn accents; however, Tex Avery claimed that he asked Blanc to give the character not a New York accent per se, but a voice like that of actor Frank McHugh, who frequently appeared in supporting roles in the 1930s and whose voice might be described as New York Irish. In Bugs' second cartoon Elmer's Pet Rabbit, Blanc created a completely new voice for Bugs, which sounded like a Jimmy Stewart impression, but the directors decided the previous voice was better. Though Blanc's best-known character was the carrot-chomping rabbit, munching on the carrots interrupted the dialogue. Various substitutes, such as celery, were tried, but none of them sounded like a carrot. So for the sake of expedience, he would munch and then spit the carrot bits into a spittoon rather than swallowing them, and continue with the dialogue. One often-repeated story, possibly originating from Bugs Bunny: Superstar, is that Blanc was allergic to carrots and had to spit them out to minimize any allergic reaction — but his autobiography makes no such claim. In a 1984 interview with Tim Lawson, co-author of The Magic Behind The Voices: A Who's Who of Voice Actors, Blanc emphatically denied being allergic to carrots.
- Jeff Bergman (Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue, The Earth Day Special, Gremlins 2: The New Batch, Tiny Toon Adventures, Box Office Bunny, (Blooper) Bunny, Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers, The Looney Tunes Show)
- Greg Burson (Tiny Toon Adventures, Taz-Mania, Animaniacs, Carrotblanca, From Hare to Eternity)
- Billy West (Space Jam, Histeria!, Bugs Bunny: Lost in Time, Looney Tunes Racing, Bugs Bunny & Taz: Time Busters, Looney Tunes: Space Race, Loons: The Fight for Fame, Bah)
- Joe Alaskey (Tweety's High-Flying Adventure, Looney Tunes: Reality Check, Looney Tunes: Stranger Than Fiction, Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Looney Tunes: Back in Action: The Video Game, Hare and Loathing in Las Vegas, Daffy Duck for President, Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal, Justice League: The New Frontier)
- Samuel Vincent (Baby Looney Tunes, Baby Looney Tunes: Egg-straordinary Adventure)
Reception and legacy
right|150px|thumb|Bugs' star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Like Mickey Mouse for Disney, Bugs Bunny has served as the mascot for Warner Bros. and its various divisions. He has appeared in more films (both short and feature-length) than any other cartoon character and is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world. On December 10, 1985, Bugs became the second fictional character (after Mickey) to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
In 2002, TV Guide compiled a list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time as part of the magazine's 50th anniversary. Bugs Bunny was given the honor of number 1. In a CNN broadcast on July 31, 2002, a TV Guide editor talked about the group that created the list. The editor also explained why Bugs pulled top billing: "His stock...has never gone down...Bugs is the best example...of the smart-aleck American comic. He not only is a great cartoon character, he's a great comedian. He was written well. He was drawn beautifully. He has thrilled and made many generations laugh. He is tops."
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Adamson, Joe (1990). Bugs Bunny: 50 Years and Only One Grey Hare. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-1855-7.
- ↑ "Bugs Bunny: The Trickster, American Style". Weekend Edition Sunday. NPR. January 6, 2008. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17874931. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ↑ bp2.blogger.com
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 "Bugs Bunny''". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9095426/Bugs-Bunny. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Barrier, Michael (2003-11-06). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. United States: Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0.
- ↑ "Leading the Animation Conversation » Rare 1939 Looney Tunes Book found!". Cartoon Brew. 2008-04-03. http://www.cartoonbrew.com/classic/rare-1938-looney-tunes-book-found. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Blanc, Mel; Bashe, Philip (1989). That's Not All, Folks!. Clayton South, VIC, Australia: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-51244-3.
- ↑ "Looney Tunes Hidden Gags". Gregbrian.tripod.com. http://gregbrian.tripod.com/hidden/hid04.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ Barrier, Michael (2003), Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Adamson, Joe (1975). Tex Avery: King of Cartoons. New York: De Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80248-1.
- ↑ "1940 academy awards". http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0148142.html. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- ↑ "1941 academy awards". http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0148172.html. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- ↑ http://www.davemackey.com/animation/wb/1944.html
- ↑ Lehman, Christopher P. (2008). The Colored Cartoon: Black Representation in American Animated Short Films, 1907–1954. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-55849-613-2. http://books.google.com/?id=xMWhTUFFuqoC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=%22any+bonds+today%22+%22bugs+bunny%22+theatrical+cartoon. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Warner Bros. Cartoon Releases - 1944
- ↑ "Warner Bros. Studio biography". AnimationUSA.com. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- ↑ Bugs Bunny Nips The Nips at the Big Cartoon DataBase
- ↑ "Herr Meets Hare". BCDB. 2013-01-10. http://blog.bcdb.com/cartoon-day-herr-meets-hare-5572/.
- ↑ Audio commentary by [[wikipedia:Paul Dini|]] for [[wikipedia:Super-Rabbit|]] on the [[wikipedia:Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 3|]] (2005).
- ↑ "History of the 380th Bomb Group". 380th.org. http://380th.org/380-History.html. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ↑ "Jasper Goes Hunting information". Bcdb.com. http://www.bcdb.com/cartoon/36556-Jasper_Goes_Hunting.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ "1958 academy awards". http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0148765.html. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- ↑ Michael Barrier's Audio commentary for Disc One of [[wikipedia:Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 1|]] (2005).
- ↑ National Film Registry: 1989-2007
- ↑ "http://looney.goldenagecartoons.com/tv/". Looney Tunes on Television. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- ↑ You Must Remember This: The Warner Bros. Story (2008), p. 255.
- ↑ WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948; in addition to all cartoons released in August 1948.
- ↑ "Cartoon special: Congressmen treated to preview of program to air on network, independent and cable outlets.". The Los Angeles Times. 1990-04-19. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-04-19/entertainment/ca-2260_1_bugs-bunny. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ↑ Bernstein, Sharon (1990-04-20). "Children's TV: On Saturday, networks will simulcast 'Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue,' an animated feature on drug abuse.". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-04-20/entertainment/ca-1433_1_drug-abuse. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ↑ "Hollywood and Networks Fight Drugs With Cartoon". New York Times. 1990-04-21. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/04/21/movies/hollywood-and-networks-fight-drugs-with-cartoon.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ↑ The shelving of the cartoon for years
- ↑ Knight, Richard. "Consider the Source". Chicagoreader.com. http://www.chicagoreader.com/movies/archives/2001/0101/010126.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ IMDB article on (Blooper) Bunny
- ↑ Ford, Greg. Audio commentary for (Blooper) Bunny on Disc One of the [[wikipedia:Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 1|]].
- ↑ "Space Jam". [[wikipedia:Rotten Tomatoes|]]. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/space_jam/. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- ↑ McCarthy, Todd (1996-11-17). "Space Jam". Variety (Reed Business Information). http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117911460. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- ↑ "Space Jam (1996)". Box Office Mojo. [[wikipedia:Internet Movie Database|]]. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=spacejam.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- ↑ Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide.
- ↑ "Looney Tunes: Back in Action". [[wikipedia:Rotten Tomatoes|]]. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/looney_tunes_back_in_action/. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- ↑ "Looney Tunes: Back in Action Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/looney-tunes-back-in-action. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- ↑ "Looney Tunes: Back in Action :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews". Rogerebert.suntimes.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20031114/REVIEWS/311140303/1023. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- ↑ Looney Tunes: Bugs Bunny stamp. [[wikipedia:National Postal Museum|]] [[wikipedia:Smithsonian|]].
- ↑ George Gene Gustines (2005-06-06). "It's 2772. Who Loves Ya, Tech E. Coyote?". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/06/arts/television/06loon.html. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
- ↑ Yes!! I can finally Blog about my Redesign of "The Looney Tunes Show" - Jessica Borutski
- ↑ "Bugs Bunny Theatrical Film Planned". [[wikipedia:ComingSoon.net|]]. August 13, 2010. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=68752. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ↑ "Former 'SNL' Star to Write 'Looney Tunes' Reboot Film (Exclusive)". hollywoodreporter.com. 2012-09-19. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/looney-tunes-jenny-slate-371643. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- ↑ Anderson, Paul (September 19, 2012). "Looney Tunes Movie Back In Action". Big Cartoon News. http://blog.bcdb.com/looney-tunes-movie-4722/. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- ↑ "Chapter 11: What's Up Doc?". Draw the Looney Tunes: The Warner Bros. Character Design Manual. [[wikipedia:San Francisco|]]: [[wikipedia:Chronicle Books|]]. 2005. p. 166. ISBN 0-8118-5016-1.
- ↑ "Transcript of Duck Soup". Script-o-rama.com. http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/d/duck-soup-script-transcript-marx.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ "It Happened One Night film review by Tim Dirks". Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/itha.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ↑ Sito, Tom (17 June 1998). "'Chuck Jones Interview'". [[wikipedia:Archive of American Television|]]. http://www.emmytvlegends.org/interviews/people/chuck-jones. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- ↑ 52.00 52.01 52.02 52.03 52.04 52.05 52.06 52.07 52.08 52.09 52.10 Sandler (2001), p. 130-133
- ↑ Sandler (2001), p. 141-143
- ↑ Jeff Bergman at Behind the Voice Actors Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- ↑ Greg Burson at Behind the Voice Actors Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- ↑ Billy West at Behind the Voice Actors Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- ↑ Joe Alaskey at Behind the Voice Actors Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- ↑ Samuel Vincent at Behind the Voice Actors Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- ↑ Most Portrayed Character in Film at Guinness World Records; retrieved 2011-11-23.
- ↑ "Bugs Bunny". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. http://www.walkoffame.com/bugs-bunny. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- ↑ "Bugs Bunny tops greatest cartoon characters list". CNN.com. 2002-07-30. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/SHOWBIZ/TV/07/30/cartoon.characters/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- ↑ "List of All-time Cartoon Characters". CNN.com (CNN). July 30, 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/SHOWBIZ/TV/07/30/cartoon.characters.list/index.html. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- ↑ "CNN LIVE TODAY: 'TV Guide' Tipping Hat to Cartoon Characters". CNN.com (CNN). July 31, 2002. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0207/31/lt.20.html. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- Adamson, Joe (1990). Bugs Bunny: 50 Years and Only One Grey Hare. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-1855-7.
- Beck, Jerry; Friedwald, Will (1989). Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-0894-2.
- Jones, Chuck (1989). Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an Animated Cartoonist. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-12348-9.
- Blanc, Mel; Bashe, Philip (1988). That's Not All, Folks!. Clayton South, VIC, Australia: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-39089-5.
- Maltin, Leonard (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons (Revised ed.). New York: Plume Book. ISBN 0-452-25993-2.
- Script error
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