|Type||Subsidiary of MGM Holdings|
|Founded||April 17, 1924|
|Headquarters||Beverly Hills, U.S|
(Chairman and CEO)
Jonathan Glickman, President of Film Division
|Parent||MGM Holdings, Inc.|
United Artists Media Group|
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, or simply MGM) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of films and television programs.
Once the largest and most glamorous of film studios, MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures and Louis B. Mayer Pictures. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills. It is one of the oldest mini-major film studios and a former major film studio.
In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, a plan which never came into fruition. Over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-Chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to changing legal, economic, and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, and although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman, whose son Edgar, Jr. would later buy Universal Studios. Three years later, an increasingly unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, and then shut down theatrical distribution in 1973. The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981.
MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise. It also incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications (led by Italian publishing magnate Giancarlo Parretti) in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor, then took control of MGM. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner (the current parent of Turner Broadcasting) and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004 by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Comcast, Texas Pacific Group (now TPG Capital, L.P.), Providence Equity Partners, and other investors.
Leo logo and mottos
[[wikipedia:File:MGM Tower.jpg|thumb|left|upright|MGM Tower, former company headquarters highlighted by the famous Leo the Lion logo at the top|]] The studio's official motto, "Ars Gratia Artis", is a Latin phrase meaning "Art for art's sake"; it was chosen by Howard Dietz, the studio's chief publicist. The studio's logo is a roaring lion surrounded by a ring of film inscribed with the studio's motto. The logo, which features Leo the Lion, was created by Dietz in 1916 for Goldwyn Pictures and updated in 1924 for MGM's use. Dietz based the logo on his alma mater's Mascot, the Columbia University lion. Originally silent, the sound of Leo the Lion's roar was added to films for the first time in August 1928. In the 1930s and 1940s, the studio billed itself as having "more stars than there are in heaven", a reference to the large number of A-list movie stars under contract to the company. This second motto was also coined by Dietz and was first used in 1932.
- Main article: Loews Cineplex Entertainment
Movie theater magnate Marcus Loew bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assessment of Metro films, Loews purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer and Irving Thalberg headed up the newly formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along (Mayer reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr. Skunk"), and the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men. Also, in 1933, Loew's Incorporated was in the process of acquiring bankrupt Paramount Pictures and its 1700 theatres, until profits from Mae West's risque features rescued the failing Paramount.
[[wikipedia:File:Gable, Clark 01.jpg|right|thumb|150px|Clark Gable|]] From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for glamor and sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo, John Gilbert, William Haines, Joan Crawford, and Norma Shearer (who followed Thalberg from Universal) . Established names like Lon Chaney, William Powell, Buster Keaton, and Wallace Beery were hired from other studios. They also hired top directors such as King Vidor, Clarence Brown, Erich von Stroheim, Tod Browning, and Victor Seastrom. The arrival of talking pictures in 1928–29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of whom would carry MGM through the 1930s: Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, Robert Montgomery, Spencer Tracy, Myrna Loy, Jeanette MacDonald, and Nelson Eddy among them.
MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in Technicolor. Using the two-color Technicolor process then available, MGM filmed portions of The Uninvited Guest (1923), The Big Parade (1925), and Ben–Hur (1925), among others, in the process. In 1928, MGM released The Viking, the first complete Technicolor feature with sound (including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken dialogue).
With the arrival of talkies, MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into sound, releasing features like White Shadows in the South Seas with music and sound effects, and Alias Jimmy Valentine with limited dialogue sequences. Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The Broadway Melody in 1929, however, was both a box-office success and won the Academy Award as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM into the sound era.
MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to "talkies" with its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The Rogue Song, a 1930 musical. In 1934, MGM included a sequence made in Technicolor's superior new three-color process, a musical number in the otherwise black-and-white The Cat and the Fiddle, starring Jeanette MacDonald and Ramon Novarro. The studio then produced a number of three-color short subjects including 1935's musical La Fiesta de Santa Barbara, but waited until 1938 to film a complete feature in the process, Sweethearts with MacDonald and Nelson Eddy, the earlier of the popular singing team's two films in color. From then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable. [[wikipedia:File:DresslerBeeryJordanMinBill1930Trailer.jpg|thumb|left|Marie Dressler and Wallace Beery in Min and Bill (1930)|]]
In addition to a large short-subjects program of its own, MGM also released the shorts and features produced by Hal Roach Studios, including comedy shorts starring Laurel and Hardy, Our Gang, and Charley Chase. MGM's distribution deal with Roach lasted from 1927 to 1938, and MGM benefited in particular from the success of the popular Laurel and Hardy films. In 1938, MGM purchased the rights to Our Gang and moved the production in-house, continuing production of the successful series of children's comedies until 1944. From 1929 to 1931, MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie Dogville Comedies, in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody contemporary films and were voiced by actors. One of the shorts, The Dogway Melody (1930), spoofed MGM's hit 1929 musical The Broadway Melody.
MGM produced around 50 pictures a year, though it never met its goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week (It was only able to release one feature film every nine days). Loew's 153 theatres were mostly located in New York, the Northeast, and Deep South; Gone With the Wind had its world premiere at Loew's Grand Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia. A fine reputation was gained for lavish productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban audience. Still, as the Great Depression deepened, MGM began to economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from yesteryear projects. This recycling practice never let up once started. Also, money was saved by MGM being the only one of the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch. Until the mid-1950s, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: it never lost money, although it did have an occasional disaster like Parnell (1937), Clark Gable's biggest flop. It was the only Hollywood studio that continued to pay dividends during the 1930s. [[wikipedia:File:Spencer tracy fury.jpg|thumb|left|Spencer Tracy in Fury (1936)|]]
MGM stars dominated the box office during the 1930s, and the studio was credited for inventing the Hollywood stable of stars system, as well. MGM contracted with the American Musical Academy of Arts Association to handle all of their press and artist development. The AMAAA's main function was to develop the budding stars and to make them appealing to the public. Stars such as Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo, and Jeanette MacDonald reigned as the top-paid figures at the studio. Another MGM sex symbol actress, Jean Harlow, who had previously appeared in the Howard Hughes film Hell's Angels, now had a big break and became one of MGM's most admired stars, as well. Despite Miss Harlow's gain, Garbo still was a big star for MGM. Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until 1937. MGM would also receive a boost through the man who would become "King of Hollywood", Clark Gable. Gable's career took off to new heights after he won an Oscar for the 1934 Columbia film It Happened One Night. Mayer and Irving Thalberg's relationship began warmly, but eventually the two became estranged; Thalberg preferred literary works to the crowd-pleasers Mayer wanted. Thalberg, always physically frail, was removed as head of production in 1932. Mayer encouraged other staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O. Selznick, but no one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell increasingly ill in 1936, Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary replacement. Rumors flew that Thalberg was leaving to set up his own independent company; his early death in 1936, at age 37, cost MGM dearly.
As a result of Thalberg's death, Mayer became head of production, as well as studio chief, becoming the first million-dollar executive in American history. The company remained profitable, although a change toward "series" pictures (Andy Hardy starring Mickey Rooney, Maisie starring Ann Sothern, Thin Man starring William Powell and Myrna Loy, et al.) is seen by some as evidence of Mayer's restored influence. Also playing a huge role was Ida Koverman, Mayer's "right hand woman".
Hits in 1939 included The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind, starring Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O'Hara and Clark Gable as Rhett Butler. (Although Gone With the Wind was produced by Selznick International Pictures, it was released by MGM as part of a deal for producer David O. Selznick, L.B. Mayer's son-in-law, to obtain the services of Clark Gable. MGM did eventually acquire all rights to Gone With the Wind).
Within one year, beginning in 1942, L.B. Mayer released his four highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts; Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo, and Jeanette MacDonald. After a two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to Warner Bros., where her career took a dramatic upturn for the better. Shearer and Garbo never made another film after leaving the lot. Of the four stars, MacDonald was the only one whom Mayer rehired, in 1948.
Increasingly, before and during World War II, Mayer came to rely on his "College of Cardinals" — senior producers who controlled the studio's output. This management-by-committee may explain why MGM seemed to lose its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of sequels and bland material. (Dorothy Parker memorably referred to it as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde.") Production values remained high, and even "B" pictures carried a polish and gloss that made them expensive to mount. After 1940, production was cut from 50 pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year. During this time, MGM released very successful musicals with players such as Judy Garland, Fred Astaire, Gene Kelly, and Frank Sinatra, to name just a few.
As audiences drifted away after the war to television, MGM found it difficult to attract them but had high overhead expenses. By the late 1940s, as MGM's profit margins decreased, word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: find "a new Thalberg" who could improve quality while paring costs. Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary, a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO. Top notch musicals were Schary's focus with hits like Easter Parade, Annie Get Your Gun, Show Boat, Singin' in the Rain, An American in Paris, and Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, which kept MGM afloat.
In August 1951, Mayer was fired by MGM's East Coast executives and was replaced by Schary.
Gradually cutting loose expensive contract players (perhaps most famously, $6,000-a-week Judy Garland in 1950), saving money by recycling existing movie sets instead of building costly new scenery, and reworking pricey old costumes, Schary managed to keep the studio running much as it had through the early 1940s though his sensibilities for hard-edged, message movies would never bear much fruit. One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio. MGM produced some well-regarded and profitable musicals that would be later acknowledged as classics, among them An American in Paris (1951), Singin' in the Rain (1952), and Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954). However, Brigadoon (1954), Deep in My Heart (1954), It's Always Fair Weather (1955), and Invitation to the Dance (1956), were extravagant song and dance flops, and even the now-classic The Band Wagon (1953) lost money after its initial release. Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television.
In 1952, as a settlement of the government's restraint-of-trade action, United States v. Paramount Pictures 334 US 131 (1948), Loews, Inc. gave up control of MGM. It would take another five years before the interlocking arrangements were completely undone, by which time both Loews and MGM were sinking. Schary bowed out of MGM in 1956 in another power struggle against the New York based executives.
As the studio system faded in the late 1950s and 1960s, MGM's prestige faded with it. In 1957 (by coincidence, the year L.B. Mayer died) the studio lost money for the first time in its 34-year history. Cost overruns and the failure of the 1957 big-budget epic Raintree County prompted the studio to release Schary from his contract. Schary's reign at MGM had been marked with few bona-fide hits, but his departure (along with the retirement of Schenck in 1955) left a power vacuum that would prove difficult to fill. Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel head of production. By 1960, MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television.
At the urging of Leonard Goldenson, longtime head of Paramount's theater chain who now ran ABC, MGM began to enter television production. MGM's first attempts at programming were cross-promotion of feature films (The MGM Parade), and based on successful film properties like The Thin Man. Several years later, MGM produced highly successful TV series, like The Man from U.N.C.L.E. and the sitcom version of The Courtship of Eddie's Father.
The year 1957 also marked the end of MGM's animation department, as the studio determined it could generate the same amount of revenue by reissuing older cartoons as it could by producing and releasing new ones. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, by then the heads of the MGM cartoon studio, took most of their unit and made their own company, Hanna-Barbera Productions, a successful producer of television animation.
In 1956, MGM sold the television rights for The Wizard of Oz to CBS, which scheduled it to be shown in November of that year. In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network. (Olivier's version of Hamlet was shown on prime time network TV a month later, but split in half over two weeks, and the 1950 film, The Titan: Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in 1952, but that was a documentary.) Beginning in 1959, and lasting until 1991, telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.S. and earning additional profits for MGM. The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.S. has seen at least once. Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner-owned channels, no longer just once a year.
In 1958, MGM released what is generally considered its last great musical, Arthur Freed's Cinemascope color production of Gigi, starring Leslie Caron, Maurice Chevalier, and Louis Jourdan. It was adapted from the novel by Colette, and written by the team of Lerner and Loewe, who also wrote My Fair Lady and Camelot. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture. From it came several hit songs, including Thank Heaven For Little Girls, I Remember It Well, the Waltz at Maxim's, and the Oscar-winning title song. The film was the last MGM musical to win a Best Picture Oscar, an honor that had previously gone to The Broadway Melody (1929), The Great Ziegfeld (1936), and An American in Paris (1951). The very last musical film produced by the "Freed Unit" was an adaptation of the Broadway musical Bells Are Ringing (1960) with Judy Holliday and Dean Martin. However, MGM did release later musical films, including an adaptation of Meredith Willson's The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964) with Debbie Reynolds and Harve Presnell.
In 1959, MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor epic Ben–Hur, a remake of its 1925 silent film hit, based on the novel by General Lew Wallace. Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in 1997 and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in 2003.
In 1961, MGM resumed the release of new Tom and Jerry shorts, and production moved to Rembrandt Films in Prague, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) under the supervision of Gene Deitch. Deitch's Tom and Jerry cartoons are very different in style from the original Hanna and Barbera style of animation. In 1963, the production of Tom and Jerry returned to Hollywood under Chuck Jones and his Sib Tower 12 Productions studio (later absorbed by MGM and renamed MGM Animation/Visual Arts). Jones' group also produced its own works, winning an Oscar for The Dot and the Line, as well as producing the classic television version of Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (with the voice of Boris Karloff) in 1966. Tom and Jerry folded in 1967, and the animation department continued with Television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.
MGM fell into a habit in this period that would eventually sink the studio: an entire year's production schedule relied on the success of one big-budget epic each year. This policy began in 1959, when Ben–Hur was profitable enough to carry the studio through 1960. However, later attempts at big-budget epics failed, among them four films which, in addition to Ben–Hur, were also remakes — Cimarron (1960), King of Kings (1961), Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1961), and most notoriously, the 1962 Mutiny on the Bounty. The 1962 Cinerama film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, the first film in Cinerama to actually tell a story, was also a flop. But one other epic that was a success, however, was the MGM-Cinerama co-production How the West Was Won, with a huge all-star cast. King of Kings, while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M. Weitman (head of production) and Robert O'Brien (president).
The combination of O'Brien and Weitman seemed to temporarily revive the studio. In 1965 MGM released David Lean's immensely popular Doctor Zhivago, later followed by such hits as The Dirty Dozen (1967) and 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). However the company's time was taken up fighting off proxy attacks by corporate raiders, and then MGM backed a series of flops, including Ryan's Daughter (1970). Weitman moved over to Columbia in 1967 and O'Brien was forced to resign a few years later.
In the Mid-1960s, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate.
In 1969, Kirk Kerkorian purchased 40 percent of MGM from Bronfman and Time, Inc., What appealed to Kerkorian was MGM's Culver City real estate, and the value of 45 years' worth of glamor associated with the name, which he attached to a Las Vegas hotel and Casino. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T. Aubrey, Jr. With changes in its business model including fewer pictures per year, more location shooting and more distribution of independent productions, MGM's operations were reduced. Aubrey sold off MGM's accumulation of props, furnishings and historical memorabilia, including a pair of Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz. Lot 3, 40 acres (Bad rounding hereScript error m2) of back-lot property, was sold off for real-estate development. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, a plan which never came into fruition. Under Aubrey, MGM also sold off MGM Records and its overseas theater holdings.
Through the 1970s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare. With the decline in output, Kerkorian closed MGM's distribution offices in 1973 and outsourced those functions to United Artists. Kerkorian now distanced himself from the operations of the studio, focusing on MGM Grand Hotel by investing $120 million. Another portion of the backlot was sold in 1974. The last shooting done on the backlot was the introductory material for That's Entertainment!, a retrospective documentary that became a surprise hit for the studio.
That's Entertainment! was authorized by Dan Melnick, who was appointed head of production in 1972. Under Melnick's regime, MGM made a number of successful films, including Westworld, Soylent Green, and The Sunshine Boys. However, MGM never reclaimed its former status.
The MGM Recording Studios were sold in 1975. In 1979, Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. The company hit a symbolic low point in 1980 when David Begelman, earlier let go by Columbia following the discovery of his acts of forgery and embezzlement, was installed as MGM's President and CEO.
In 1980, MGM split its production and casino units into separate companies: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film Co. and MGM Grand Hotels, Inc. The rise of ancillary markets was enough to allow MGM Film Co. to increase production to 10-15 films a year compared to three to six in the previous decade, but first it needed its own distribution unit. MGM proceeded to get back into theatrical distribution in 1981 with its purchase of United Artists, as UA's parent company Transamerica Corporation decided to let go of the studio following the failure of Heaven's Gate. As a result, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film Co. was renamed "MGM/UA Entertainment Company."
WarGames and Octopussy were MGM/UA's only early 1980s hits, but didn't push MGM into the profit range that Kerkorian wanted. MGM/UA formed a trio of subsidiaries, the MGM/UA Home Entertainment Group, MGM/UA Classics, and the MGM/UA Television Group in 1983. Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance.
After the purchase of United Artists, David Begelman's duties were transferred to that unit. Under Begelman, MGM/UA produced a number of unsuccessful films, and he was fired in July 1982. Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist, proved to be a clear hit. Not even MGM's greatest asset - its library - was enough to keep the studio afloat. After 1982, the studio relied more on distribution, picking up independent productions, rather than financing their own.
On August 7, 1985, Turner Broadcasting System offered to buy MGM/UA. As film licensing to television became more complicated, Ted Turner saw the value of acquiring MGM's film library for his Superstation WTBS. On March 25 of the following year, the deal was finalized in a cash-stock deal for $1.5 billion, and the company was renamed "MGM Entertainment Co.". Turner immediately sold MGM's United Artists subsidiary back to Kerkorian for roughly $480 million. But unable to find financing for the rest of the deal, and due to concerns in the financial community over the debt-load of his companies, on August 26, 1986, Turner was forced to sell MGM's production and distribution assets to United Artists for $300 million. The MGM lot and lab facilities were sold to Lorimar-Telepictures. Turner kept the pre-May 1986 library of MGM films, along with the RKO Radio Pictures and pre-1950 Warner Bros. films which MGM had previously purchased.
How much of MGM's back catalog Turner actually obtained was a point of conflict for a time; eventually, it was determined that Turner owned all of the pre-May 1986 MGM library, as well as the pre-1950 Warner Bros. catalog, the Popeye cartoons released by Paramount (both the pre-1950 WB library and Popeye cartoons were sold to Associated Artists Productions, which was later bought by United Artists), the US/Canadian rights to the RKO library, and a good share of United Artists's own back list, in addition to MGM's television series and Gilligan's Island, produced by UA. Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television, and caused a controversy when he began "colorizing" many black-and-white classics.
After Kerkorian reclaimed MGM in August 1986, the MGM/UA name continued to be used, but the company changed its name to MGM/UA Communications Co., now using MGM and UA as separate brands.
In July 1988, Kerkorian announced plans to split MGM and UA into separate studios. Under this deal, Kerkorian, who owned 82% of MGM/UA Communications, would have sold 25% of MGM to Barris Industries (controlled by producers Burt Sugarman, Jon Peters, and Peter Guber). The proposition to spin off MGM was called off a few weeks later. In 1989, Australian-based Qintex attempted to buy MGM from Kerkorian, but the deal collapsed. On November 29, 1989, Turner (owners of the pre-May 1986 MGM library) attempted to buy Tracinda's entertainment assets such as MGM/UA Communications Co. but the deal failed.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Moonstruck (1987), A Fish Called Wanda (1988), A Dry White Season (1989), The Russia House (1990), Thelma & Louise (1991), The Man in the Moon (1991), Of Mice and Men (1992), Benny & Joon (1993), Six Degrees of Separation (1993) and Get Shorty (1995) were critical and/or commercial hits for MGM/UA.
- Main article: MGM-Pathé Communications
In 1990, Italian financier Giancarlo Parretti announced he was about to buy MGM/UA. Although the French government had scuttled Parretti's bid to buy Pathé due to concerns about his character, background, and past dealings, Parretti got backing from Crédit Lyonnais and bought MGM/UA from Kirk Kerkorian. To finance the purchase, Parretti licensed the MGM/UA library to Time Warner for home video and Turner for domestic television rights. He then merged it with his Pathé Communications Group (formerly Cannon Group, a distributor that Parretti had renamed before his aborted bid for Pathé) to form MGM–Pathe Communications Co. The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd, a former president of MGM/UA, was brought on board as CEO of MGM in 1991. However, a year later, Parretti's ownership of MGM–Pathé dissolved in a flurry of lawsuits and a default by Crédit Lyonnais, and Parretti faced securities-fraud charges in the United States and Europe. On the verge of bankruptcy and failure, Crédit Lyonnais took full control of MGM–Pathé and converted its name back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The bank fired Ladd and replaced him with former Paramount executive Frank Mancuso and former Warner Bros. executive John Calley (as United Artists head). As part of his exit package, Ladd took some of the top properties, including Braveheart.
Because of the way it had acquired control of the company, Crédit Lyonnais soon put the studio up for sale, with the highest bidder being Kirk Kerkorian. Now the owner of MGM for the third time, Kerkorian's deal with Mancuso quickly angered John Calley, who quit United Artists and was named head of Sony Pictures Entertainment. By selling a portion of the studio to Australia's Seven Network, Kerkorian was able to convince Wall Street that a revived MGM was worthy of a place on the stock market, where it languished until he sold the company to a group of hedge funds tied to Sony, which wanted to control the studio library to promote the Blu-ray Disc format.
On April 11, 1997, MGM bought Metromedia's film subsidiaries (Orion Pictures, The Samuel Goldwyn Company, and the Motion Picture Corporation of America) for US$573 million, substantially enlarging its library of films and television series and acquiring additional production capacity. The deal closed in July of that year. This catalog, along with the James Bond franchise, was considered to be MGM's primary asset. In the same year, MGM's long-running cable television series, Stargate SG-1, first aired. Kerkorian bought out Seven Network the following year.
In December 1997, MGM attempted to purchase 1,000 films held by Consortium de Réalisation, but was outbid by PolyGram. However, they ultimately succeeded when they acquired the pre-1996 PolyGram Filmed Entertainment library from Seagram in 1999 for $250 million, increasing their library holdings to 4,000. Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for 100 of the films since spring 1997. The studio also obtained the broadcast rights to more than 800 of its films previously licensed to Turner Broadcasting.
In 2000, MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally. MGM had until that time distributed its films internationally through United International Pictures (UIP), a joint venture of MGM, Universal Pictures, DreamWorks Pictures and Paramount Pictures. UIP was accused by the European Union of being an illegal cartel, and effective November 2000 MGM severed its ties with UIP and distributed films internationally through 20th Century Fox.
MGM purchased 20% of Cablevision Systems for $825 million in 2001. MGM attempted to take over Universal Studios in 2003, but failed, and was forced to sell several of its cable channel investments (taking a $75-million loss on the deal).
- Main article: MGM Holdings
In 2005, many of MGM's competitors started to make bids to purchase the studio, beginning with Time Warner. It was not unexpected that Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner. His Turner Entertainment Group had risen to success in part through its ownership of the pre-May 1986 MGM library. After a short period of negotiation with MGM, Time Warner was unsuccessful. The leading bidder proved to be Sony Corporation of America, backed by Comcast and private equity firms Texas Pacific Group (now TPG Capital, L.P.), DLJ and Providence Equity Partners. Sony's primary goal was to ensure Blu-ray Disc support at MGM; cost synergies with Sony Pictures Entertainment were secondary. Time Warner made a counter-bid (which Ted Turner reportedly tried to block), but on September 13, 2004, Sony increased its bid of US$11.25/share (roughly $4.7 billion) to $12/share ($5 billion), and Time Warner subsequently withdrew its bid of $11/share ($4.5 billion). MGM and Sony agreed on a purchase price of nearly $5 billion, of which about $2 billion was to pay off MGM debt. From 2005 to 2006, the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group domestically distributed films by MGM and UA.
MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company. MGM negotiated and struck deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for 2006 and early 2007. MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by 2007. Lucky Number Slevin, released April 7, was the first film released under the new MGM era. Other recent films under the MGM/Weinstein deal include Clerks II and Bobby. Upon the MGM/Weinstein films' release on home video, however, full distribution rights revert to Weinstein (under Genius Products).
On May 31, 2006, MGM announced it would transfer its home video output - MGM Home Entertainment - from Sony Pictures Home Entertainment to 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment (excepting co-productions with Columbia or TriStar, such as Eon Productions' James Bond franchise where Sony is a majority partner).
MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation. In addition, MGM signed a deal with New Line Television in which MGM would handle New Line's U.S. film and series television syndication packages. MGM served as New Line's barter sales representative in the television arena until 2008.
On November 2, 2006, producer/actor Tom Cruise and his production partner, Paula Wagner, signed an agreement with MGM to run United Artists. Wagner will serve as United Artists' chief executive. Cruise will produce and star in films for UA, and MGM will distribute the movies.
Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products. In April 2007, it was announced that MGM movies would be able to be downloaded through Apple's ITunes service, with MGM bringing an estimated 100 of its existing movies to iTunes service, the California-based computer company revealed. The list of movies included the likes of modern features such as Rocky, Ronin, Mad Max, and Dances with Wolves, along with more golden-era classics such as Lilies of the Field and The Great Train Robbery. In October, the company launched MGM HD on DirecTV, offering a library of movies formatted in Hi Def. Also in 2006, MGM licensed its home video distribution rights for countries outside of the United States to 20th Century Fox. MGM teamed up with Weigel Broadcasting to launch a new channel titled This TV on November 1, 2008. On August 12, 2008, MGM teamed up with Comcast to launch a new video-on-demand network titled Impact. On November 10, 2008, MGM announced that it will release full-length films on YouTube.
As of mid-2009, MGM had US$3.7 billion in debt, and interest payments alone totalled $250 million a year. MGM earns approximately $500 million a year on income from its extensive film and television library, but the economic recession is reported to have reduced this income substantially.
Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry. MGM had to repay a $250-million line of credit in April 2010, a $1-billion loan in June 2011, and its remaining US$2.7 billion in loans in 2012. In May 2009, MGM's auditor gave the company a clean bill of health, concluding it was still on track to meet its debt obligations. At that time, the company was negotiating with its creditors to either extend the debt repayment deadlines or engage in a debt-for-equity swap. Industry observers, however, questioned whether MGM could avoid a Chapter-11 bankruptcy filing under any circumstances, and concluded that any failure to conclude the negotiations must trigger a filing. MGM and its United Artists subsidiary were now producing very few films each year, and it was widely believed that MGM's solvency will depend on the box-office performance of these films (especially its upcoming 23rd James Bond film). There was some indication that Relativity Media and its financial backer, Elliott Associates (a hedge fund based in New York), had been acquiring MGM debt in an attempt to force the company into involuntary bankruptcy.
On August 17, 2009, chief executive officer Harry E. Sloan stepped down and MGM hired Stephen F. Cooper as its new CEO, a corporate executive who guided Enron through its post-2001 bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme in 2005. Expectations were that Cooper was hired to act quickly on MGM's debt problems. On October 1, 2009, the studio's new leadership negotiated a forbearance agreement with its creditors under which interest payments due from September to November 2009 did not have to be paid until December 15, 2009.
MGM stated in February 2010 that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine, might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name. However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.
MGM Holdings, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and 160 affiliates filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on November 3, 2010 with a prepackaged plan for exiting bankruptcy which led to MGM's creditors taking over the company.
On December 20, 2010, MGM executives announced that the studio had emerged from bankruptcy. Spyglass Entertainment executives Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum became co-Chairs and co-CEOs of the studio. After MGM emerged from bankruptcy, on December 23, 2010, MGM named Ann Mather, the ex-Pixar CFO, to head MGM's new board of directors. On December 29, 2010, MGM signed a new lease with New York–based group George Comfort & Sons for a six-story building in the corner of 235–269 N. Beverly Drive that was intended to be the new headquarters for William Morris Agency. MGM will be leaving its old headquarters in Century City.
On January 4, 2011, MGM and Weigel Broadcasting announced plans to distribute Me-TV nationwide. On February 2, 2011, MGM named Jonathan Glickman to be the film president of MGM. Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4,000 films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: Skyfall and Bond 24. There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, 2011. Post-bankruptcy, MGM also co-financed SPE's The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. 20th Century Fox's deal with MGM handling its library distribution worldwide was set to expire in September 2011. However, the deal was renewed and extended on April 14, 2011 and will expire in 2016.
MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist, and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper, which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, 2011.
The new MGM, under Barber and Birnbaum's control, focuses on co-investing on films made by another party, which handle all distribution and marketing for the projects. MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its' in-house production service.
On July 31, 2012, MGM announced it would acquire Carl Icahn's stake in MGM Holdings for $590 million. Once the sale is complete, MGM will become a public company. Also on July 31, MGM sold MGM Networks, Inc. to Chellomedia, while retaining its US, Canada, UK, Germany, and joint ventures in Brazil and Australia, to raise fund to buy out Carl Icahn and prepare for an IPO.
On October 3, 2012, Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".
In May 2014, MGM introduced The Works, a channel available in 31 percent of the country, including stations owned by Titan Broadcast Management. Content includes news, MGM movies, sports, and comedy. In September 2014, MGM acquired a 55% interest in One Three Media and Lightworkers Media, both operated by Hollywood producers Mark Burnett and Roma Downey. The two companies, along with UA, will be consolidated into a new film and television company known as United Artists Media Group.
MGM cartoon shorts
- Main article: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio
In animation, MGM purchased the rights in 1930 to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog, produced by Ub Iwerks. The first cartoon in this series (entitled Fiddlesticks) was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor. In 1933, Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper, that was also produced by Ub Iwerks. In 1934, after Iwerks' distribution contract expired, MGM contracted with animation producers/directors Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising to produce a new series of color cartoons. Harman and Ising came to MGM after breaking ties with Leon Schlesinger and Warner Bros., and brought with them their popular Looney Tunes character, Bosko. These were known as Happy Harmonies, and in many ways resembled the Looney Tunes' sister series, Merrie Melodies. The Happy Harmonies regularly ran over budget, and MGM dismissed Harman-Ising in 1937 to start its own animation studio.
After initial struggles with a poorly received series of The Captain and the Kids cartoons, the studio rehired Harman and Ising in 1939, and Ising created the studio's first successful animated character, Barney Bear. However, MGM's biggest cartoon stars would come in the form of the cat-and-mouse duo Tom and Jerry, created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera in 1940. The Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven Academy Awards between 1943 and 1953. In 1941, Tex Avery, another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department. Avery gave the unit its image, with successes like Red Hot Riding Hood, Swing Shift Cinderella, and the Droopy series.
Avery left the studio in 1953, leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry and Droopy series. After 1955, all cartoons were filmed in CinemaScope until MGM closed its cartoon division in 1957.
- ↑ "MGM Studios: Corporate Info". http://www.mgm.com/corporate/section/bio/id/0/index.html. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
- ↑ Finke, Nikki (2 February 2011). "Jonathan Glickman Named MGM Film Prez". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2011/02/jonathan-glickman-new-mgm-film-president. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- ↑ Eyman, Scott (2005). Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0481-6.
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- ↑ WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948, in addition to all cartoons released on or after August 1, 1948.
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- ↑ "Why Sony Is Now A Bit Player At MGM". BusinessWeek. November 20, 2006. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_47/b4010065.htm. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
- ↑ "MGM Expands Worldwide Television Distribution Group". http://www.mgm.com/corp_news_releases.do?id=491. Retrieved October 24, 2006.
- ↑ "MGM To Handle U.S. Syndication Sales For New Line Television". http://www.mgm.com/corp_news_releases.do?id=500. Retrieved December 16, 2006.
- ↑ "MGM brings classic movies to iTunes - Monsters and Critics". Tech.monstersandcritics.com. 2007-04-12. http://tech.monstersandcritics.com/news/article_1290495.php/MGM_brings_classic_movies_to_iTunes. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "MGM bows first U.K. web". Variety. 2009-12-14. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118012749.html?categoryid=14&cs=1. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Yao, Deborah (August 12, 2008). "Comcast, MGM to launch action movie VOD channel". USA Today. AP (Gannett Co. Inc.). http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-08-12-1906442833_x.htm. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- ↑ Cheng, Jacqui (2008-11-10). "MGM will be first major studio to put full movies on YouTube". Ars Technica. http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20081110-mgm-will-be-first-major-studio-to-put-full-movies-on-youtube.html. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 "Relativity Media Seeks Controlling Stake in MGM". TheWrap. 2009-05-17. http://www.thewrap.com/article/relativity-media-aiming-take-control-major-portion-mgm-which-process-trying-restructure-debt. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ 95.0 95.1 95.2 "MGM puts skeptics at ease". Variety. 2009-07-15. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118006008.html?categoryid=1236&cs=1. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ At least one other major news outlet claims the debt service is $300 million a year. See: Barnes, "MGM Replaces Chief Executive", The New York Times, August 18, 2009.
- ↑ 97.0 97.1 97.2 97.3 97.4 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/19/business/media/19mgm.html
- ↑ Peter Bart EVP and Editorial Director @MrPeterBart (2009-08-18). "Town reacts to MGM’s new lionkeeper". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118007435.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ DiOrio, Carl. "Firm Scoops Up MGM Debt." The Hollywood Reporter. May 18, 2009.
- ↑ DiOrio, Carl. "MGM Looks to Avoid Bankruptcy." The Hollywood Reporter. May 27, 2009.
- ↑ DiOrio, Carl. "Relativity Ally Buys MGM Debt." The Hollywood Reporter. May 19, 2009.
- ↑ Lauria, Peter (2009-04-03). "Relativity Kills Deal With Mgm | New York Post". Nypost.com. http://www.nypost.com/seven/04032009/business/relativity_kills_deal_with_mgm_162635.htm. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Sandler, Linda (2010-11-03). "MGM Studios Files Bankruptcy, Rejecting Icahn Bid". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-03/metro-goldwyn-mayer-files-bankruptcy-after-rejecting-lions-gate-takeover.html. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "MGM files for bankruptcy, rejects bid; Providence Equity flagged as a ‘loser’ - Providence Business News". Pbn.com. http://www.pbn.com/MGM-files-for-bankruptcy-rejecting-Lions-Gate-Icahn-bid-Prov-Equity-flagged-as-a-loser,53554. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "Harry Sloan out at MGM as CEO". Variety. 2009-08-18. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118007405.html?categoryid=30&cs=1. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ "MGM gets a little breathing room on its interest payments | Company Town | Los Angeles Times". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2009-10-01. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2009/10/mgm-gets-a-little-breathing-room-on-its-interest-payments.html. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Eller, Claudia (February 26, 2010). "As MGM mulls its future, the show goes on". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/la-et-mgm26-2010feb26,0,7597644.story. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- ↑ Bloomberg (2010-02-26). "MGM asks potential buyers to submit bids by mid-March –". Nypost.com. http://www.nypost.com/p/news/business/new_mgm_bid_deadline_s5HWClKd5p4rDY9DQdTXqI. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
- ↑ Kawamoto, Dawn (November 3, 2010). "MGM Files for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy". http://www.dailyfinance.com/2010/11/03/mgm-bankruptcy/. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- ↑ Agard, Chancellor (2010-12-20). "MGM out of bankruptcy | News Briefs | EW.com". News-briefs.ew.com. http://news-briefs.ew.com/2010/12/20/mgm-out-of-bankruptcy. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "MGM restructuring becomes official". Variety. 2010-12-20. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118029320. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Fleming, Mike (2010-12-23). "MGM Sets Ex-Pixar CFO Ann Mather To Head New Board of Directors". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2010/12/mgm-sets-ex-pixar-cfo-ann-mather-to-head-new-board-of-directors/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Nikki Finke (2010-12-29). "Official: MGM Moving Into Office Building Once Intended For William Morris Agency". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2010/12/official-mgm-moving-into-office-building-once-intended-for-old-william-morris-agency/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Albiniak, Paige (2011-01-04). "MGM, Weigel Taking Me-TV Nationwide | Broadcasting & Cable". Broadcastingcable.com. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/461770-MGM_Weigel_Taking_Me_TV_Nationwide.php. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "MGM launches classic TV service to roar like the Fonz | Company Town | Los Angeles Times". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2011-01-04. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/01/mgm-creating-classic-tv-channel-to-roar-like-the-fonz-.html. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Nikki Finke. "Sony About To Recapture James Bond #23; UPDATE: MGM Leverages 007 For Deal On Sony's 'The Girl With The Dragon Tattoo'". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2011/02/sony-about-to-recapture-james-bond-23-mgm-leverages-007-for-co-finance-deal/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Ben Fritz (2011-02-08). "Sony finalizing distribution and co-financing deal with MGM, including next two 'Bond' films | Company Town | Los Angeles Times". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/02/sony-mgm-distribution-bond.html. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Nikki Finke. "TOLDJA! MGM Makes Distribution Deal With Sony Pictures That Includes James Bond". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2011/04/toldja-mgm-makes-distribution-deal-with-sony-pictures-that-includes-james-bond/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ Fleming, Mike. "MGM Re-Ups DVD Deal With Fox Through 2016". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2011/04/mgm-re-ups-dvd-deal-with-fox-through-2016/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ "MGM looks ahead with ‘Mr. Mom,’ ‘Idolmaker’". Variety. 2011-02-17. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118032494?refcatid=4076. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ "MGM Finally Comes Back from the Dead with 5 Projects including Remakes of ROBOCOP and POLTERGEIST". Collider.com. 2013-11-20. http://collider.com/mgm-robocop-poltergeist-remake/76899. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Ben Fritz (2011-12-13). "MGM film studio remade with a low-profile and a focused strategy - Los Angeles Times". Latimes.com. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-ct-mgm-20111213,0,2920058.story. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ "'Red Dawn' remake to come out next year from FilmDistrict - latimes.com". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2011-09-26. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/movies/2011/09/red-dawn-remake-to-come-out-next-year-from-filmdistrict.html. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Fritz, Ben (March 23, 2012). "MGM regains full control of United Artists". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/movies/la-fi-ct-mgm-quarter-20120323,0,1843162.story.
- ↑ "Icahn sells MGM stake for $590 million - L.A. Biz". Bizjournals.com. 2012-08-01. http://www.bizjournals.com/losangeles/news/2012/08/01/icahn-sells-mgm-stake-for-590-million.html?ana=yfcpc. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- ↑ "UPDATE: MGM Networks Sale To Chellomedia To Fund BuyBack of Icahn Shares: LAT". Deadline.com. 2012-08-01. http://www.deadline.com/2012/08/chellomedia-acquires-mgm-networks/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
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- ↑ Nikki Finke (2012-10-03). "MGM's Roger Birnbaum Steps Down To Return To Producing; Gary Barber Now Revived Studio's Sole Chairman & CEO". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2012/10/mgm-co-chairman-ceo-roger-birnbaum-steps-down-will-become-producer-gary-barber-to-become-sole-chairman-ceo/. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
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- Altman, Diana. Hollywood East: Louis B. Mayer and the Origins of the Studio System (Carol Publishing, 1992).
- Bart, Peter. Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM (Morrow, 1990).
- Crowther, Bosley. The Lion's Share: The Story of an Entertainment Empire (E.P. Dutton and Company, 1957).
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- Official website
- Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer at the Internet Movie Database
- MGM Animation at the Big Cartoon DataBase
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- Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Article Encyclopædia Britannica
- Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer films and personalities scrapbooks, 1920-1944, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
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